Monitoring the Russian Navy Northern Fleet in CW

I have realised that I haven’t posted an article that I wrote for The Spectrum Monitor, published in October 2016, on monitoring the Russian navy Northern Fleet. Here it is its entirety, with a few extras. A French translation of the article is available at the bottom of the page.october20161

A brief history of the Northern Fleet

The Russian Northern Fleet has to be my favourite one of all the fleets for monitoring in CW mode. I suspect the main reason goes back to my childhood days, during the heat of the Cold War, when we were constantly warned about Russian submarines leaving the frozen north to wipe out the Western world with a nuclear strike from the deep. The Cold War days are long gone now, but the Northern Fleet (NF) continues to exist, be it in a much reduced way. However, things are afoot, and it seems as if the Russians may well be starting to build up their forces again in the frozen North.

In the 1950’s, when the first ballistic missile submarines were brought into service, the Northern fleet went from being the least funded of the fleets to the most funded. The direct access to the Barents Sea and North Atlantic meant that bases in the Kola Peninsula could let out SSBN’s almost undetected – something the submarine bases at that time in the Baltic would not, and still cannot, manage.

The Northern Fleet covers not only the Northern Coast of Russia, but also the White Sea, Barents Sea, Kara Sea and the Arctic. The main base is at Severomorsk with an additional base at Severodvinsk covering the White Sea. As well as these there are numerous outposts and smaller bases used by all vessels of the NF, including Submarines.

Severomorsk became the fleet’s headquarters at the end of 1956, taking over from Polyarny in the Kola Bay, but expansion throughout the whole area was rapid, effectively making the entire region one large base with many of the areas being “closed” towns. The bastion strategy was created to protect the ballistic missile fleet, most of which operated in the Arctic region, close to home, it was only the older class of missile boats that ran the risk of passing through the GIUK gap for the Eastern shores of the USA. With modern SSBN’s being created at a fast rate, these boats were built with the ability to launch their weapons whilst still in harbour – they actually didn’t need to go anywhere to bring about their death and destruction. The large destroyers and cruisers were created to protect the region, whilst the aircraft carriers, or aircraft carrying cruisers as they are known, were also constructed to defend the bastion areas from western submarine activity. Unlike US Carrier groups, the Kutzetsov-class aircraft carriers operated as a regional defender rather than a strike group leader, and because of this they only carried interceptor aircraft. It is only now that the single carrier remaining is being given an aircraft strike capability, though this hasn’t been entirely successful in the recent operations in the Mediterranean.

Webcams are a great source of information and can help in identifying either callsigns of ships or at least a potential build up in traffic. Here, Sierra II-class SSN “Pskov” departs Severodvinsk for trials of what is believed to be a sonar system. The required permanent attachments (only recently added) can just be made out on the bow of the boat

The bastions that were created weren’t totally impenetrable, We now have post-Cold War stories emerging of various missions by British and United States submarines that managed to infiltrate the protected waters. Collisions in 1992 and 1993 of Russian and United States submarines in the Kola bay highlight this very fact, though by this time the fall of the Soviet Union had already taken place, and the NF was in a big decline capability wise.

Just over an hour later after the departure of “Pskov”, Zvezdochka-class support ship “Zvezdochka” heads into the White Sea and was captured on the webcam. This ship uses the callsign RMNN on the CW networks.

Funding seemed endless for the Russian forces during the Cold War years, but with the end of the USSR, came the end of the funding. The NF no doubt felt the blow the most as the majority of the fleet were intended to act as a deterrent to the forces of the west and no longer were there these threats. Submarines and ships lay rotting in harbour, the carriers were decommissioned and the many outlying bases were abandoned. Nowhere else, from satellite imagery, shows more the effects of the fall of the Soviet Union navy than the ruins of remote outposts, small naval bases, SAM sites and wrecks of the NF that are scattered along the whole of the coast of Northern Russia. If you have quite a few hours to kill, going to Google Earth/Google maps and scouring the coastline will bring you to places where you can only imagine what it was like to live there, though many are still lightly populated. Google Earth’s linking to the photo website Panoramio brings you even closer to these locations with places such as Goryachiye Ruchyi and its images of a Primorye-class Intelligence ship wrecked on the shore (69°10’31.87″N 33°28’29.90″E) or the near abandoned submarine servicing base at Gremikha (Ostrovnoy), a “Closed city” complex on the shore of the Barents Sea (68° 3’54.14″N 39°27’30.64″E).

In its current form, the NF is still the largest in the Russian navy, consisting of approximately 80 warships, half of which are submarines. There is around this number again in service ships, tugs, Icebreakers etc. However, despite being the largest fleet, it isn’t the most modern! Most of the ships in the fleet are approaching the end of their career, having been upgraded on numerous occasions. The actual readiness of most of the ships is unknown but utilising the historical imagery facility in Google Earth shows that many of the ships have not moved for months, even years. They move from pier to pier, but this will be to make a landing area available for a serviceable ship and the move will unlikely to have been under the ships own steam. A good example is Kirov-class Battle Cruiser Pytor Velikiy which is either alongside or moored in the Severomorsk bay when analysing images from the last year or so. This ship is almost definitely waiting on its sister ship Admiral Nakhimov completing a substantial modernisation programme at Severodvinsk before having the same work carried out. Using Google Earth you can follow Admiral Nakhimov’s refit with the historical function at position 64°34’34.16″N 39°48’53.78″E, though it is very noticeable that the ship has been in Severodvinsk since 2003!

With satellite imagery available to the public getting better all the time, the use of Google Earth can help identify ships that are active by using the historical imagery function and noting any movement. Here, with just a small amount of work, I’ve been able to identify the ships in port at Severomorsk, including naming two if the ships. Taking notes of what is where on which dates helps with the analysis.

The main Severomorsk region is made up of seven bases, shipyards and nuclear waste facilities, including the submarine bases at Polyarny and Gadzhiyevo. Further to the North, and the frozen (and unfrozen now) Arctic are more bases, shipyards and nuclear facilities. Following the coast round to the White Sea, there are the base and shipyards of Severodvinsk and many other smaller ports and bases. It is this region of the NF that has generated many of the unknown CW callsigns that we have for the fleet.

The White Sea in itself can be classed as a big military testing area. Not only are trials carried out for new ships that have been built at Severodvinsk, it is also used for testing of ships out of maintenance, testing of new equipment such as sonar; and it is used heavily in weapons trials, including cruise missile testing. There is what is believed to be a weapons range at the entrance to the White Sea from the Barents, on the Eastern shore at Chizha (67° 4’12.71″N 44°18’17.18″E – the area surrounded by hundreds of craters, some of which are actually natural from meteorites) and to the West of Severodvinsk is the missile testing launch facility of Nyonoksa (64°38’44.78″N 39°13’21.78″E). Here they oversee the testing of cruise missiles, but from land based launchers.

The bigger missile tests, those from SSBN submarines, generally take place in the Barents Sea, with launch ranges set up when required in the areas between Murmansk and the White Sea. Most of these will point to the NE where the missiles will head for the Kura missile range.

Severomorsk also has webcams. Here the two images show how you can roughly log arrivals and departures of certain ships. In this image various ships can be seen including a Borey-class SSBN highlighted by the arrow. This is likely to be "Vladimir Monomakh" which left Severomorsk for its new base at Vilyuchinsk in the Pacific on the 15th of August. In the image below, captured just two hours later, the only Russian Aircraft Carrier, Kuznetsov-class “Admiral Kuznetsov” has arrived in port. This was undergoing pre-deployment maintenance and trials before she headed to the Mediterranean. You’ll also notice that the Borey has drifted around making it harder to identify from this angle.

Severomorsk also has webcams. Here the two images show how you can roughly log arrivals and departures of certain ships. In this image various ships can be seen including a Borey-class SSBN highlighted by the arrow. This is likely to be “Vladimir Monomakh” which left Severomorsk for its new base at Vilyuchinsk in the Pacific on the 15th of August. In the image below, captured just two hours later, the only Russian Aircraft Carrier, Kuznetsov-class “Admiral Kuznetsov” has arrived in port. This was undergoing pre-deployment maintenance and trials before she headed to Mediterranean. You’ll also notice that the Borey has drifted around making it harder to identify from this angle.

 

Monitoring the Northern Fleet

Whilst operating within the NF area of operations (AOP), instead of using the standard frequencies of 8345kHz and 12464kHz, the ships use a pool of frequencies in a regional network system. There are a large number of frequencies in this pool, seemingly all within a seasonal schedule system as used by other Russian forces networks. The interesting thing is that even though they do stick to the set frequencies available to use within a set period of dates, the selection of which frequency to use would appear to be random, though I doubt for a moment that it is.

Frequencies that have been used by the Northern Fleet in CW mode, downloadable in PDF format.

As there are so many frequencies available to the NF, the radio operators would need to monitor all of them for any calls that are made – this would be huge task. The theory is that within each season grouping there is an additional frequency network schedule that is either transmitted in a coded format, or it is in a document, which then tells both ends which frequencies to use on specific dates. In general, all the ships on the same day will use the same frequency so whatever system they use, it definitely works.

Sent out by Severomorsk (RIT) to callsign RLO, a collective callsign for all ships operating in the NF, “RADIOPROGNOZ” messages seem to be one of the main methods used by the NF to assist with this, an example of which is below.

RLO DE RIT QTC 110 34 1 0057 110 =
RADIO PROGNOZ
01024 03003 30000
00001 00006 30009
00002 00006 30010
00005 00006 40010
00006 00006 40012
00102 00006 30009
00001 00612 40009
00002 00612 40010
00005 00612 50012
00006 00612 50013
00102 00612 40010 =

In Cyrillic, RADIOPROGNOZ is actually радиопрогноз, and translated into English this means Radio Forecast, literally it is Radio Prognosis. Luckily, there’s plenty of documentation available that confirms that радиопрогноз refers to propagation, including the Great Soviet (and Russian) Encyclopaedia which states: Pадиопрогноз – forecast radio conditions on shortwave (as translated).

In the above RadioPrognoz example, if you ignore the first line of the message for now, it is clear that the first column is numbered regions and the second column is times (ignore first zero, it is a spacer, so 00006 = midnight to 6am). As far as I can find online there has only been a few messages logged by an amateur that refers to the afternoon (has column two with groups of 01218 and 01824), the majority have been morning ones only, but this is probably down to monitoring habits more than anything. Column three then refers to the MUF, Frequency range or frequency channel number in some way or other, and my thoughts are that the first number is possibly the lower frequency available, the other figure is the higher one, with spacer zeros in-between.

So, this would be helpful in determining what frequency or frequencies to monitor you’d think? Well, unfortunately not. Most of the frequencies used by the NF are in the 4MHz range which as you can see is pretty much covered by the propagation prediction. I can honestly say that it is still a bit of guesswork at the moment.

Going back to the first three groups, the first one refers to the date the forecast covers, in the case of the example it is 01024 = 01 (day) 02 (month of year) 4 (year without the first digit) or 1st Feb 2014. Not sure on the other two groups, but possibly average previous MUF numbers, solar activity etc. The zeros could well just be spacers like the rest of the message.

One final note on this is that as far as I’m aware, no other fleet uses RadioPrognoz messages.

Severomorsk, NE of Murmansk, is really one large military base made up of numerous small ones. The main base is at Severomorsk (which in itself also has two airfields), with Kola Bay being used for the Submarine fleets and small patrol boats used to defend the whole area. Polyarny is where you’ll find the Patrol Submarines and ships, with Gadzhiyevo being the home of the larger Submarines, including the SSBN’s.

All other messages found within the NF networks are those found elsewhere, including of course the FM-13 weather reports. Unfortunately, these are not as useful as they are when ships are operating outside of their AOR. As a lot of the ships tend to stick within the NF region there is little way of tying up the callsigns to the ships. Some of the ones we have been able to tie-up are the long range Hydrographic ships which leave the area frequently. Quite often their missions are given news space on official Russian navy webpages and newspapers, and with some investigation work most have been worked out. Some of the other larger ships have also been tied up including Udaloy-class Destroyer Vice Admiral Kulakov (CW callsign RGR35), with the others generally being tankers and support ships.

In one of my first TSM articles (Monitoring the Russian Navy – Part One) I mentioned callsign RMMA and how we worked out that this was Vishnya-class Intelligence ship Viktor Leonov of the NF, so if you are able to find that article then you can see how hard and how long it takes to sometimes work out which callsign belongs to which ship. Sometimes callsigns do fall into your lap though, such as NF Survey/Research Ship Yantar that has a callsign RMM91. This ship actually uses its CW callsign as its AIS identification callsign and can be fully tracked using any online AIS monitoring website. At the time of writing (18th Sept at 1330z) the ship is about 180nm east of Malta, heading east, and its destination is eventually Novorossiysk. Yauza, a cargo ship, was also tied up using AIS plots when an unknown callsign on CW was moored off the SE of England to wait to transit the English Channel. I took a quick look in the area using MarineTraffic and found the ship immediately. Just good luck really.

Not many ships in the Russian navy use AIS, but you will find that some of their smaller tugs are starting to have the systems installed. These ships are not CW fitted I doubt due to their operations, but they can be an indication of possible activity of larger when you see them moving. Tie these movements up to some areas that have webcams and you can get some interesting results.

I personally split my NF callsigns up into two regions. One that operates in all areas of the NF AOP, and another that operates in the majority within the White Sea. It’s not 100% accurate as the ships do move around, but there are some obvious ones that only ever stay in the White Sea. They are very active in this area, especially when it is the summer/autumn periods (when the White Sea isn’t frozen over) and especially when there are exercises and trials taking place. Ships seem to station themselves close to the same locations quite often and my guess is that they are guard ships closing off the whole of the area when tests are taking place. Because they rarely leave the White Sea, of all the callsigns that have been heard only one has been tied up – RMNN which is rescue tug Zvezdochka.

This image shows the areas in the White Sea that many FM-13 messages refer to, especially during weapons trials.

It is because of this rarity of leaving the White Sea that I find the NF fleet frequencies the most interesting. And, as I’ve said earlier, they can be extremely busy. One of the busiest weeks was down to the testing of a Bulava missile that was launched from a new Borey-class SSBN in 2013. Unlike most tests for SSBN launches which take place from the Barents Sea, this was from the White Sea because it was just a test of the submarines launcher system and not the actual missile. Because of this test there were around ten ships operating in the area for support and security, with around 30 FM-13 messages and others sent in a day.

Although it is fairly unlikely we will ever tie-up most of these NF callsigns, it is the challenge of analysis and intelligence gathering on what they could be that is the most fun part.

The main transmitter site for Severomorsk is the West of the city, NW of the main airfield on a hill overlooking the bay. Here is almost definitely the HF site (CW callsign RIT) and probably a VLF site. There are also numerous other transmitter and radar sites dotted around the whole area.

French translation of the article provided by Andre

December Warships International Fleet Review

As I said in my last post, I was expecting there to be a few of my images in the December edition of Warships IFR magazine. This has turned out to be correct.cover-dec16-wifr

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Most of the images are part of an article on Exercise Joint Warrior 162 written by Phil Rood. Unmanned Warrior was also taking place at the same time (as part of Joint Warrior really) and the article also goes into detail about this too.

The editor of the magazine, Iain Ballantyne, has kindly allowed me to publish extracts from the magazine here.

robowarriorsprd1

robo-warrior-sprd2

Another of my images was included as part of a news item on the German navy and their recent order for five new Braunschweig-class corvettes.

wifr-germ-corvette

Further information on the magazine, including subscription plans, are available on their website – http://www.warshipsifr.com/

Recent published work and photography processes

It’s been a busy six months or so for me with regards to having work published.

My main work has been the continuous analysis of the Russian navy to assist the editor of Fighting Ships, Stephen Saunders, to keep the data in the yearbook as accurate and up to date as possible. This information is also used in the on-line version of the yearbook. The current 2016/2017 edition is now available with plenty of my Russian navy data included, along with photos that I’ve taken. jfs2016_001

As you know I stopped selling the yearbooks last year (apart from a large sale at the beginning of this year) and since then IHS have added older titles to their online store. Though not as cheap as I was able to get them, it may be worth taking a look to see if there’s any titles you may need in your collection. Here’s the link to the Fighting Ships page in the store.

As with all things involved with data analysis, looking into one thing generally off-shoots into another. From the OSINT work that I generally do for Fighting Ships, I normally have to take notes and data which would also fit into some of the other yearbooks. Some of this data has been sent to the various editors of the C4ISR yearbooks, which I hope will also be included in future publications. And there’s also photographs of radars, weapons and other systems that I’ve been taking over the last few years that hopefully will also be of use.

jir_july_001 jir_aug_001

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The OSINT work also brought me to the attention of one of the IHS magazines, Jane’s Intelligence Review. Since May I have worked on three articles for this magazine, two in conjunction with other writers, and one on my own. I am currently working on two more pieces for them, but at this time I can’t divulge on the subject matter. jir_sep_001

The work has been very interesting indeed, and has brought me a couple of new acquaintances and friends from it. I’m hoping that that I can carry on with other articles for them once the two I’m working on now are complete. jir_aug_002

 
Another magazine by IHS, Jane’s Navy International, has used a couple of my photos in recent months with hopefully more to follow. The magazines can be subscribed to from the IHS magazine online store.

It’s good work editing images for magazines, but its certainly a lot harder than it used to be – in general for less money than what you used to receive. The advent of digital photography has reduced the prices one gets for inclusion in magazines, mainly due to the fact that so many people now do it and so the editors have a plethora of images available to them. The silly thing is that in the old days you used to only take the photo, normally on slide film (Kodachrome 64), with no further editing by yourself (unless you happened to process the images in your own darkroom – I didn’t!). You’d send away the film to Kodak who would process it for you, and then you’d check over the slides after they’d been returned, deciding on which ones to send away. The only real work needed was to annotate the slide with basic information, and include a letter with further notes and where to post the cheque payment if used. Of course, you’d never see the slide again, and so if you wanted to have a copy for yourself then you’d need to take two photos – it was costly business using slide hence the payments you received being greater than they are now for far less work (one trip to the USA cost me more in Kodachrome 64 than it did in flights!!).

These days, the full photo process takes much longer.

Take the recent Joint Warrior (JW) exercise that I photographed. For this exercise I set aside two days for the actual photography. I then needed a further four days to carry out the actual editing of the photos for various publications! With current copyright laws, and the fact that most publishers are aware that photographers send away the very same image for inclusion in different magazines, the publishers now insist on exclusivity with an image (including publication online). Because of this, as a photographer you have to think ahead about who you are taking photos for. With JW I was thinking of three main possible targets – Fighting Ships, Jane’s Navy International and Warships IFR. As well as these I also had to think about the various other yearbooks by IHS (C4ISR and Weapons). So, if one ship comes along I need to take at least three images of it, maybe milliseconds apart, to cover the three main publications. Multiply that by a few hundred and you can see that there is a lot of images to go through once back home.

Back home then, I now need to process the images myself – no longer do they go away to Kodak for initial processing, and the publication no longer fine tunes the image for what ever use they may have. You need to trim it, get the exposure and colours right and make sure it’s sharp. Not only do you need to edit each image, you also have to include additional information for each one. This needs to be a title, your name, copyrights, what the subject is, when and where you took it and any other information you may think is needed for the publisher. With over 400 photos to go through for this JW it took a lot of time to carry out the whole process – 4 days as I’ve already said. From the 400 or more images that I took, I sent away around 70. How many of those will finally end up being published is unknown but I hope that it is around half of them.

Saying all that, it really is good fun and I still enjoy seeing my photos in any publication, be it book or magazine. I recently bought a new gadget for my GoPro, a time-lapse timer that moves the camera, and I decided to test it out whilst editing one of the images taken at Joint Warrior. The result of that test is below:
 

 

wifr_001 Talking of having things published in Warships IFR, I have actually had quite a good amount put into print for this magazine recently. And I believe there is to be a good spread in the December edition with images taken from the Joint Warrior exercise that I have mentioned above. I also hope to start writing the occasional piece for the magazine.

I’ll keep you informed.

The Spectrum Monitor article June 2016

tsm_june_001A few months later than normal, but here’s a copy of my article from the June edition of The Spectrum Monitor

Russian Navy around the World

The Russian Navy has started to get active again after the usual period of rest over the winter months. The main reason for this is because most of the areas the Navy operate from in the North are frozen over, and are only just now starting to thaw out. There are three busy areas that produce the most traffic in the summer, but one of those practically disappears over the winter; and that is the area that falls under the command of the Northern Fleet, and in particular the White Sea. I intend to cover the Northern Fleet in much greater soon.

One thing that is noticeable is that the fleets seem to have moved to a more regional network of frequencies. They used them anyway before, but in general they tended to stick to 8345 kHz at night and 12464 kHz during the day as the main ship frequencies. I suspect that with the large increase of ships becoming active these frequencies were getting saturated with calls – something that was becoming noticeable as ships were “stepping” on each other. I mentioned last time that these main frequencies were quiet, and it now looks like this it was the reason.

As I say, I’ll go into regional stuff through the rest of the year so I’ll concentrate on a couple of interesting things that have happened over the last few months.

One of my favourite ships is Admiral Vladimirskiy, a Akademik Krylov Class Survey/Research Ship that uses the CW callsign RHO62. From late August 2014 this ship carried out a round the world trip, starting from the Baltic Sea headquarters at Kronshtadt, routing around the north coast of Russia through the Barents Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian Sea and through the Bering Straits. From there it head south down to Taiwan and then across the Pacific to Corinto in Nicaragua, down through the Panama Canal, across the Atlantic to Brest, through the English Channel and home to Kronshtadt. It returned home on the 18th of January 2015 – a huge trip and one that our small group of monitors was able to track the whole way round, probably getting around 95% of all weather/TESAC reports that it sent. After that, it needed a good rest, and that it had until November last year when it set sail for the Antarctic.

Again, we have been able to follow its travels all the way down to the Northern edge of the Antarctic Ice belt, where it operated for some time near Davis Station, part of the Australian Antarctic program. They have a great website which provides various webcams, but unfortunately Vlad didn’t get within their sights. It’s worth checking out their website, just so that you can watch the fascinating time-lapse videos that are produced from the webcams. Vlads route took it this time through the Med, through the Suez Canal, the Gulf of Aden, along the East coast of Africa, stopping off at Madagascar for Christmas. Then it was down to Port Elizabeth in South Africa, before its final push to the Antarctic, getting there mid-January. For its time down to around Madagascar it stuck to 8345 or 12464 for its reports, but later on it transferred to 8460 kHz where it then spent most of its time. It would try the other frequencies should it not get through of course, there’s a huge selection that it could choose from.

8460 kHz is noted as being used by RMP (Baltic Fleet HQ at Kaliningrad) but in fact Vlad was calling RJH25 to pass on its messages. RJH25 is a RX/TX site in Kyrgyzstan and in this case is used in simplex instead of the normal duplex. This was good because it meant we were able to get both sides of the conversation easier than having to monitor lots of frequencies in duplex mode. A link to Google maps is in my callsign list which shows the RJH25 antenna site.

Here is one of my receptions of a FM-13 weather report from the 15th February on 8345 kHz:
0010z RHO62 586 20 15 0301 586 = SML FOR RJH45 RJH48 RJH74 RJD38 =
15001 99655 30900 22233

rho62_davis_001

Distance from RHO62 to my Wellbrook Loop antenna using Google Earth

I’ve missed out most of the weather information to show the relevant data for positioning. The data equates to RHO62 being at 65.5S 90.0E heading SE @ 11-15kts. This is approximately 9670 miles from ship to my Wellbrook Loop antenna!! I must say, I am very pleased with that achievement.

So, what are the Hydrographic ships of the Russian Navy doing? Their main task is to carry out data acquisition of the waters that the Russian navy operate in, which is why the TESAC is very important to them. The checking of sea temperatures against salinity levels helps them in various ways, but there are two particular reasons for this data. One, is that temperature and salinity actually affect how torpedoes and missiles from underwater launches travel through the water – the higher the salinity and colder the sea water is, the more it can cause drag. The second is for much the same reason, but in this case it is for Submarines. Not so important for the Nuclear powered ones, but a little more so for the SSK’s as this can affect the time they can stay underwater before requiring to surface to “snort” and power up their batteries.

The TESAC data also provides the depth of the sea though most of the Hydrographic ships will have equipment that fully maps the sea beds. Again, depths are important, especially for the Submarine fleets, and I suspect they use these ships to map potential routes to strike areas for the SSBN’s. You see a good amount of Hydrographic ship activity in the Northern waters of the Arctic for instance, as with the higher sea temperatures, and the receding Ice cap, more routes are becoming available there – and this is useful for the ships too.

And finally, of course, the Hydrographic ships will be providing information to the Russian Government, not only on things like climate change but also in the search for oil and minerals. The Russians have a civilian Hydrographic fleet for this, but it is not large and so they will use data acquired from the navy too.

The navy fleet consists of around 80 ships that are potentially capable of providing Hydrographic readings, though it is hard to find out exactly whether each one can or cannot. There’s certainly quite a few in the Baltic, where they test the SSK’s and torpedoes. And there’s also plenty in the Northern fleet which has a huge areas in the Barents Sea and White Sea for the testing of missiles launched from SSBN’s. They will use the Hydrographic ships to analyse the water before and after any trials of the submarines or weapons.

Monitoring 8460 Khz for RHO62 also brought us some luck with another callsign, RMGZ, a Prut Class Submarine Rescue Ship named Epron. This had in late summer 2015 travelled east from its home at Sevastopol in the Black Sea, again via the Med and Suez Canal where it was eventually lost from our radios off the east coast of Sri Lanka. It had been erratic on 8345 up until then anyway, and this was probably because it looks like it was using 8460 as its primary frequency. Of course, we didn’t know this as we weren’t monitoring it. Epron was heading towards Visakhapatnam in India to take part in exercises and later on in a Navy exhibition. My furthest east report from it was at 16.3N 82.5E, about 50km SW of Visakhapatnam. Epron is now at home in Sevastopol after its long journey.

Prut-class Submarine Rescue ship “Epron” transits the Bosporus on its journey home to the Black Sea – Photo by Yörük Işik

I mentioned last time Project 550 Large Dry Cargo and Passenger ship Yauza which uses the callsign RHM80. Yauza has been a very busy ship over the last few months as part of the Russian ferrying of equipment and troops to Syria – named by many as the “Syrian Express”.

In all, our tracking of RHM80 shows it made five trips to Tartus from either Sevastopol or Novorossiysk , both being Russian Navy bases in the Black Sea. The last trip to Tartus has ended, and instead of heading round towards the Bosporus, it headed towards Malta, arriving there on the 4th of April; it will probably travel onwards to its Northern Fleet base of Murmansk after picking up some supplies for the journey from Valletta. The Russian navy quite often uses Valletta as a stop off point and with plenty of ship photographers there, it is a useful port for tying up callsigns to ships.

Of course we will be tracking it all the way home on 8345 and 12464 as it is very good at sending FM-13’s every six hours as required. It also sends lots of “11111” messages – so called because of the first five figure group in messages to Moscow (RIW), Sevastopol (RCV) and Severomorsk (RIT). These are status messages I believe and of low priority, and are very common. But, you don’t need to be listening out on the Russian frequencies to track Yauza, you can just use MarineTraffic to track it. Just enter its name into the search area.

Yauza wasn’t the only ship involved in the “Syrian Express” so there was plenty of traffic from other ships. Some of the callsigns we know and some of them we don’t. There’s still a couple of Large Landing Ships that are avoiding us, but it looks like I have been able to tie-up at least one ship that is currently involved in Syria – and this is RKA80. This I believe is Slava Class Missile Cruiser Varyag, and it’s given itself away by sending messages via RCV for RJS, the callsign for Pacific Fleet HQ, Vladivostok. The messages started around the time that Varyag arrived in the Mediterranean Sea so time will tell if it disappears from the frequencies once it departs the operational area. It has recently stopped sending messages with the extra section for RJS so I wonder if it’s realised it was giving itself away? An example of their messages is here:

1900z RKA80 639 106 29 1230 639 = SML FOR RJS =
MMMMM ХАФЖШ ШЫЖКТ ….. ЦЦЬДЦ ВОПЫУ
АБПУИ = + RKA80

I removed most of the message for ease as this one was 106 groups long, but this was part of what looks like a standard schedule of three priority messages, each well into the hundreds of groups (normally around the 150 mark)

Well, I hope I haven’t gone on too much. Not much frequency information for you this time but I that I plan to change when I start with the Fleet information articles in the future. 8460 kHz monitoring has also bought us some other interesting things which wasn’t known before – but that would fill one article on its own.

As I say, keep an ear out on 8345 Khz and 12464 kHz. And if you’re on the West Coast of North America then try 8348 kHz which seems to be the Pacific Fleet primary CW frequency. If you do decide to give it a try then if you do manage to get anything, in particular from North America, then please do contact me either using my contact info in my blog, or via the TSM editor. I’m very keen to see what coverage there is elsewhere in the world.

Notes:
Since the time that I wrote the article I have confirmed that RKA80 is Varyag

Project 21631 Buyan-M class Patrol ship Zelenyy Dol transits the Bosporus, heading for its first ever patrol. It was heading for the port of Tartus as part of the Russian Syrian crisis fleet. Since this image was taken, sister ship Sepukov also deployed to the Med, and after further deployments both have transferred to the Baltic. Both of these ships will be two of the unknown callsigns we’ve picked up recently – photo by Yörük Işik

Fred T. Jane

Today, the 8th March 2016, marks the centenary of the death of Fred T. Jane, the founder of Jane’s Fighting Ships and all the off-shoots of products that now exist under his name. He was 50 years old.

Fred was discovered on the morning of the 8th March 1916 “dead in bed at his residence in Clarence Parade [Portsmouth]” and “had been attended during the past week or so by Dr Cole-Baker on account of an attack of influenza, and had also complained of heart trouble, but his sudden death came as a great shock”.

FTJ_002He lived quite an amazing life during those 50 years, too much for me to cover here, but luckily a book was written about him by Richard Brooks, published in 1997. The book is still available today, easily found on Amazon for instance, and is titled Fred T. Jane – An eccentric Visionary (From Ironclad Ships To 21st Century Information Solutions) – and it is a great read.

Not only did Fred invent Fighting Ships and All the Worlds Aircraft, he was one of the first people to have a motor car in the UK (including racing them), he was one of the first private pilots (though not very good going by all the crashes he had), he was a member of Parliament, he was a writer of Science Fiction (at the same time as H.G. Wells was writing on the very same subjects) and a very successful artist. It was the artistry and writing that got him into creating Fighting Ships, even though there were other successful books in existence at that time covering the same subject matter. It was his line drawings and silhouettes that made Fighting Ships stand out from the rest, and it is why the books are still in existence to this day whilst the others have dwindled into the past.

As well as writing and illustrating his own Science Fiction, he created artwork for other writers, including this for the book "Olga Romanoff" by George Griffith in 1893.

As well as writing and illustrating his own Science Fiction, he created artwork for other writers, including this for the book Olga Romanoff by George Griffith in 1893.

Taken from the 1932 edition of "Fighting Ships", the earliest in my collection.

Taken from the 1932 edition of Fighting Ships, the earliest in my collection.

The early Fighting Ships books, the first of which was printed in 1898, went into extraordinary detail. These included the same details as is found in todays editions – weapons, crew numbers, engine types, speed etc., but also down to such details of the thickness of hulls in the various areas of each ship. The details on guns and armoured hulls were given comparative identifiers to show that a certain type of gun was capable of piercing a certain type of armoured hull. It was from this that the use of the books became manuals in “WarGames”.

Four metres of "Fighting Ships". Nearly every edition from 1946 to 1995, plus the earliest I have from 1932

Four metres of Fighting Ships. Nearly every edition from 1946 to 1995, plus the earliest I have from 1932

Now, these WarGamers weren’t just “nerds” sitting around at home, these were Naval Officers who used the information for training and strategy building, although the game was available to the public too. Prices at the time ranged from 4 guineas to £40 (around £4,400 in todays money), though the top end product “contained practically all the warships in the world” and was used primarily by various navies, including the Japanese Navy. The “games” came with model ships as part of the boxed set.

The early editions were in Landscape format, with different "standards" available - the "top end" versions were leather bound.

The early editions were in Landscape format, with different “standards” available – the “top end” versions were leather bound.

Though the Royal Navy was very slow in taking up the game, the Russian Navy were extremely interested in it and invited Fred to St. Petersburg in 1899 where he met Tsar Nicholas II. Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich even wrote the preface to the 1899 edition of Fighting Ships, the Duke being the Tsars brother-in-law. Fighting Ships isn’t even officially sold to anyone in Russia anymore.

"The British Battle Fleet" first edition from 1912

The British Battle Fleet first edition from 1912

Thanks to this trip, Fred was able to publish an off-shoot book titled The Imperial Russian Navy which led further to The British Battle Fleet – a book I have in my possession in its first edition format. It is thought that to this day, no one else outside of Russia has had such access to their fleets. Fred became good friends with members of both the Russian and Japanese Navies, something that caused him grief later on during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 where he lost friends on both sides.

Fred died on his own, though he had an estranged wife and a daughter, but his legacy still lives on today. Ironically, the house he died in was bombed by the Germans in the Second World War, but flats that were built there in its place has a plaque commemorating his name. FS15-16

I’m very proud to have had my photographs printed in recent editions of Fighting Ships and I enjoy very much the research I do on the Russian Navy that I then forward on to the yearbooks current editor, Commodore Stephen Saunders RN. He is just the eighth editor in the 118 years of publication.

For more information on Fred T. Jane, please look up the previously mentioned book by Richard Brooks – you won’t be disappointed.

Monitoring the Russian Navy – Part One

As I normally do, a few months after publication in The Spectrum Monitor, here’s one of my articles that was published in the February edition.

Monitoring the Russian Navy – Part One

Amur Class Floating Workshop PM-138 (ПМ-138) passes through the Bosporus. This uses the callsign RBIZ (РБИЗ) on the CW networks. PM-138 is part of the Black Sea Fleet and normally carries out a six month rotation off Tartus, Syria, with the Amur Class PM-56 (ПМ-56), callsign RIR98 (РИР98) - Photo by

Amur Class Floating Workshop PM-138 (ПМ-138) passes through the Bosporus. This uses the callsign RBIZ (РБИЗ) on the CW networks. PM-138 is part of the Black Sea Fleet and normally carries out a six month rotation off Tartus, Syria, with the Amur Class PM-56 (ПМ-56), callsign RIR98 (РИР98) – Photo by Yörük Işık

As I said in one of my first articles for TSM, I only really got back into HF monitoring because of my move to Scotland and treating myself to a desktop radio for listening to VHF/UHF. I decided to push the boat out and get an Icom IC-R8500 as I’d always fancied one and the specifications, as we all know, are top notch. I also thought that as I was going to be working in the same room as Shanwick Oceanic that I would get something that would let me listen to them, I used to love listening to Shanwick. Of course, I soon discovered a lot had changed on the Ocean and the HF got put aside for a while.

It was whilst reading through a Military aviation forum that I noticed that a couple of guys had been monitoring the Russian navy using CW, and that what they had been tracking was possibly the Kiev Class Aircraft Carrier Admiral Kuznetsov and its carrier group. Well, I found this fascinating and started listening to the same frequencies they had listed to see if my makeshift antenna could get anything – and sure enough it did.

Since I was a kid I’d been interested in Russian military hardware, after I’d been given a book called “The Soviet War Machine” to read when visiting my grandparents. Even though it was library book, I took it away on a long-term loan and read it hundreds of times, sucking in as much knowledge as possible. There was something about the design and ruggedness of all their equipment that intrigued me, and man, their Submarines were awesome!!

When I joined the RAF years later, my interest in the Russians changed from the navy to the Air Force and Nuclear threat that I was now (in theory) facing. And from then, up until the moment I found out about monitoring the Russian navy on CW, I didn’t really think much about the navy again. Now I was really interested and I wanted to learn more about this side of monitoring.

Through the UDXF Yahoo group I found lots more logs and frequencies; and then I discovered Fritz Nusser’s great website at http://www.astrosol.ch/. Fritz unfortunately died in July 2014 and so did his website (the domain name now used by Asics trainers!!), but the information held there was nothing but brilliant – frequencies, callsigns, examples of messages, the navy bases and the ships in the different fleets. It was the perfect site for a beginner, which I most certainly was.

Well, now a few years down the line I hope I’m pretty good at what I know, though I can honestly say there are guys out there whose knowledge still amazes me – Trond Jacobsen from Norway for starters. What I’d like to do here though is show you how you can listen in on the Russian navy on CW, and amazingly, be able to track their positions.

The Basics

First of all, I need to show you how the navy is divided up. It is split up into five fleets:
The Northern Fleet (NF) – HQ at Severomorsk
The Baltic Fleet (BF) – HQ at Kaliningrad
The Black Sea Fleet (BSF) – HQ at Sevastopol
The Caspian Flotilla (CF) – HQ at Astrakhan
The Pacific Fleet (PF) – HQ at Vladivostok

The Northern Fleet has recently been incorporated into a new Arctic Joint Strategic Command structure but still operates under its own command system, and it is by far the largest fleet in the navy. Within these fleets there are a large number of submarines and ships, around 265 in total with another 60 or 70 on order, divided between numerous bases within the fleets.

A close up of the antennas on Ropucha Class Amphibious Landing Ship “Novocherkassk” (Ножосхеркасск), callsign RFH71 (РФН71) – Photo by Yörük Işık

Each HQ has a CW callsign, as does each base and then each major ship. We haven’t found any evidence that smaller vessels, and by this I mean harbour tugs etc., have a CW callsign, and the same goes for Submarines. The tugs will be because they rarely leave the harbour area so would be within normal VHF/UHF range of the base; the submarines have other methods of contacting home though there’s no doubt they use VLF/HF for communications, just like the USN boats with EAM’s. I will say though that we also have a huge amount of unidentified callsigns and that these could in fact be tugs, submarines and such like. The likelihood is though, that most of these are smaller missile boats etc. that also rarely leave the confines of the waters they patrol – and also could be Border Guard ships that also use the same radio networks (they also don’t leave their home waters). There’s also the AGI’s or Intelligence Collection ships that use CW but don’t give away their positions, well most of the time anyway – more on this later. As well as the five fleets, there’s also of course Moscow to think of, and the actual Russian navy high command at St. Petersburg. These too make and receive calls and each has their own callsign.

My Russian Navy Callsigns page here on my blog lists all the CW callsigns that have been found, and if tied up, to which ship/base they belong to. It’s not complete, and there are still some changes that need to be made to it as some of the callsigns aren’t necessarily navy – more investigation and time is required on this front.

I will list the HQ callsigns here though:
Moscow = RIW
National Defence Control Centre, St. Petersburg = RAA
Severomorsk = RIT
Kaliningrad = RMP
Sevastopol = RCV
Astrakhan = RJD52
Vladivostok = RJS

To confuse matters though, St. Petersburg for instance, has a base callsign too – RJC66. This is the actual naval station as opposed to the HQ. And there’s also another callsign associated with Moscow, RJE56, which is the actual transmitter site which sends/receives calls – possibly when RIW (and RAA) are off-line – and these also tend to be between land units only, not to/from ships. RAA also only tends to send/receive to/from HQ’s with messages then forwarded on to ships (and vice versa). It’s not uncommon for bases to have multiple callsigns.

You’ll notice that all the callsigns start with an R which is common for the navy, the ships also beginning with the letter R. But there’s also some other elements within the Russian networks that start with this letter, and it’s because of this that confusion arises as to exactly what is navy and what isn’t – the naval (air) network also uses R as the first letter for instance. Each callsign is either three, four or five digits but there is no correlation between the callsigns and the base or ship name; and the ships don’t have a callsign that links into the base they’re stationed at – ships based at Sevastopol don’t start with RCV for instance. They are totally random.

So, that’s the basic callsigns completed – or is it?

You see, what we’ve done here, and what’s happened for many a long time, is that the CW has been “westernised”, turned into Latin Morse. But the Russians don’t use Latin Morse, they use Cyrillic Morse. Now, this doesn’t really matter that much as I’m “western” so I can use this system for callsigns, but it does throw up some problems when it comes to messages – again, something I’ll get onto later in another article.

If you don’t know Cyrillic CW, and I don’t, I still need to look it up each time (I still don’t know Latin CW 100% and have to check with a list most of the time) there’s a Wikipedia page with it on that I use. But effectively to make the callsigns “proper” they should be given their Russian ones – RIW is actually РИВ, RAA is РАА and RCV is РЦЖ as examples.

But, and here’s the interesting thing, the Russians use CW Q and Z codes! And to be honest I’m not sure whether they translate the Q code into Cyrillic or if they use the codes as normal – QSL for instance. Either way, they use these codes and they have also created some of their own.

For now though we’ll use Latin CW for all the associated callsigns and messages

Ropucha Class Amphibious Landing Ship “Yamal” (Ямал), callsign RHV42 (РХЖ42), highlights the problems with using Latin Russian versus Cyrillic Russian. A direct translation of the ships name would be Ämal if it was used as the CW callsign. Knowledge of Russian alphabets certainly helps with monitoring the Russians – photo by Photo by Yörük Işık

How to track the ships

I’ll list some of the frequencies required later on, but the best place to start is to monitor 12464 kHz during the day from 0600z to 1800z; and 8345 kHz overnight from 1800z to 0600z. This isn’t always the case as propagation has its way sometimes and the ships will try the other frequency, but these are the primary ship frequencies to start with and their associated times of use. The Russians work in the majority using a duplex system with the HQ’s using their own frequencies to transmit on. Whilst all of the HQ’s will have an operator listening out on the primary ship frequencies, the ships will be listening to their HQ frequency (frequencies) only. The only other frequency the ships will be listening to is that that has been allocated to RIW for that day in case Moscow wants to get in contact with them, or for flash messages. Some of the ships ignore their home base and send direct to Moscow, and then sometimes if a ships HQ doesn’t answer them they’ll try another to relay on the message for them. I want to cover message types and methods in greater detail in another article so for this one I’m going to concentrate on the message type that allows us to pinpoint the location of the ships.

So how do we do it? It’s actually quite easy, and the Russians use another western method to give us this information. For some reason they use the same code used by NOAA for Marine Surface Weather Observations, the FM-13-X-SHIP. Whether these reports are sent on to NOAA or not, we don’t know, but I doubt it. The Russians have their own Hydrographic units as you’ll see in a moment or by looking at my callsign list and we can only presume that they use this code as it’s already there and they don’t have to think up their own method.

If you’re not familiar with the FM-13 code then here’s a link that will take you to the 150 page PDF file on their website. Below though is an example message sent by RKB91 (РКБ91) – Altay Class Tanker “Kola”:

RKB91 605 16 22 1000 605 = SML FOR RJH45 RJD38 =
22061 99572 10081 41598 43408 10004 40110 51024 70202 8////
22252 00140 22012 = + RKB91

What we have here is a combination of both the Russian navy signal method (line 1) followed by the FM-13 code, ending with the Russian message system again. To decode the first line:
RKB91 = callsign
605 = message number
16 = number of groups in message
22 = date
1000 = Moscow time (this was sent at 0600z, but there’s now a three hour time difference between Moscow and UTC)
605 = repeat of message number
SML = Message priority, in this case SML stands for Samolet (fighter jet) – normal priority
FOR = for
RJH45 RJD38 = Hydrographic station callsigns

The next two lines are the FM-13 message giving the weather at the site of the observation. The link to the codebook will give you further information, but the parts we are most interested in are the first three groups:
22061 = 22 (date), 06 (0600z) 1 (1st FM-13 message of the hour)
99572 = 99 (latitude), 572 (57.2N)
10081 = 10 (Longitude – East), 081 (08.1)
The final group we’re interested in is:
22252 = 222 (heading speed), 5 (heading SW), 2 (6 to10kts)

The last number group and the callsign repeat is part of the Russian message system again – 22012 confirming that there’s 12 groups of numbers in the message and the date, in this case the 22nd.

From this then the message translates to an observation position of – 57.2N 08.1E heading SW @ 6-10kts, just off the North Western coast of Denmark. The position can be viewed here on Bing maps

The Bosporus is a busy channel. Here USN Arleigh Burke Class Destroyer USS Ross heads west, whilst Novocherkassk heads east towards the Black Sea - Photo by Yörük Işık

The Bosporus is a busy channel. Here USN Arleigh Burke Class Destroyer USS Ross heads west, whilst Novocherkassk heads east towards the Black Sea – Photo by Yörük Işık

Most of the messages we receive are of course from the Eastern Longitude and Northern Hemisphere, but we do get the odd one from the Western Longitude, in which case in the example above it would have read 70081. I am yet to receive anything from the Southern Hemisphere but if I were to then the first number would be either a 5 (for Western Latitude, Southern Hemisphere) or a 3 (for Eastern Latitude in the south).

Prior to the FM-13 message RKB91 would have called Kaliningrad to establish the connection, and these go like this:
VVV RMP RMP RMP DE RKB91 RKB91 QSA? QTC

So as you can see, they do use Q codes.

With regards to the Hydrographic stations, we don’t know exactly where they are, but we have rough idea. We’re pretty certain that RJH45 is the main one in Moscow. The second callsign in the example above is probably a regional Hydrographic station for the Baltic region, or a collective for all ships of the Baltic Fleet.

Finally, the messages are normally sent every six hours – 0600z, 1200z, 1800z and 0000z. There are certain times where ships send every three hours. As you can imagine, when it’s busy the frequencies can get a bit chaotic as the calls tend to step all over one another.

I said I didn’t know CW that well, and I don’t really. But you do get use to the patterns of the callsigns, in particular the HQ’s. And you also get used to the radio operators and their speed/way of sending the messages. On one occasion we were able to work out the shift pattern of one ship by the changes in the operator methods.

One other quirk to the Russian CW is the short zero. To save time, instead of five dah’s, they will only send one (T), though this is normally in context and is noticeable whether it should be a zero or a T. Not every operator will do this and they’ll send the zero correctly.

Callsign Tie-Ups

So, we have the callsigns for the bases tied up (well some of them) but how do we get the ships? This is down to a couple of methods, the first being the Russian navy themselves. The Russian navy has a very active website and they regularly post movements of their ships and where they’ve docked. You only need to keep an eye on these reports and tie-up arrival/departure dates with any unidentified callsigns to get a pretty good match up.

The second method is down to online photos, blogs and media such as twitter. There’s numerous different websites that promote photos of ships, sites like Marinetraffic.com, shipspotting.com and shipais.com. These all have dates when the photos were taken. A great blog for getting the Black Sea fleet has to be Bosporus Naval News which not only shows photos taken by locals (including some of those in this article by Yörük Işık) but also lists dates when Naval vessels, not just Russian, pass through the Bosporus.

With all these different methods you can find out what callsign belongs to which ship. It’s not easy, and it can take some time, especially if the ships don’t send many FM-13 reports. Of course, we’re not always right at first. In some cases the ships are in a flotilla, and only one ship out of the group will send a report. In this case you haven’t a clue which one you’re listening to, unless you’ve already tied one from the flotilla up previously. Recently we caught a new callsign, RJC20, going through the Bosporus so we waited for some pictures to emerge only to discover that two ships had gone through together, with only one sending reports. For a short while we thought it had to be Sorum Class Sea-going Tug “MB-31” as this was seemingly the escort ship to Dergach Class Missile Patrol Boat “Samum”; it’s normally the case that in a group the tug or tanker escort would do the FM-13 reports. Further into the reports, going on for a month or so, it still looked like the RJC20 belonged to MB-31 until new information came to light that Samum was taking part in the anniversary of the Battle of Navarino memorial flotilla off Pilos in Greece, the exact location of RJC20. It only took another week or so for RJC20 to return to the Black Sea and Samum was captured on “film” again whilst reports were given that MB-31 was escorting another ship off Malta. So this confirmed that RJC20 was Samum – or did it? On the 28th of March RJC20 plotted through the Bosporus again, and this time only MB-31 went westbound. Eventually then, this tied up RJC20. So you see it’s all about patience and almost a bit of Intelligence investigative skills that make this hobby work – its good fun.

2013 was the 70th Anniversary of the Battle of the Atlantic and an event was held at Liverpool docks. One of the ships that participated was Udaloy Class Destroyer, Vitse Admiral Kulakov. I was unable to attend but one of the Russian CW monitors, Roger Hutchinson, did manage it and was able to take the tour around the ship. I’m not jealous at all. Here’s one of the many photos he took showing the huge amount of antennas on board this destroyer, which uses the callsign RGR35 (PГР35). As well as all the antennas you can see the 30mm AK-630 6 barrelled gun used for air-defence (of which there are four on board) and its associated “Bass Tilt” Fire Control radar on the structure to its right. There’s seven other radars shown here with another 8 or 9 out of shot – photo Roger Hutchinson

2013 was the 70th Anniversary of the Battle of the Atlantic and an event was held at Liverpool docks. One of the ships that participated was Udaloy Class Destroyer, Vitse Admiral Kulakov. I was unable to attend but one of the Russian CW monitors, Roger Hutchinson, did manage it and was able to take the tour around the ship. I’m not jealous at all. Here’s one of the many photos he took showing the huge amount of antennas on board this destroyer, which uses the callsign RGR35 (PГР35). As well as all the antennas you can see the 30mm AK-630 6 barrelled gun used for air-defence (of which there are four on board) and its associated “Bass Tilt” Fire Control radar on the structure to its right. There’s seven other radars shown here with another 8 or 9 out of shot – photo Roger Hutchinson

Earlier I mentioned the AGI ships. These don’t send FM-13 reports at all, and generally only contact Moscow (RIW) with other message types. This then makes it practically impossible to tie up the callsigns – unless the Russian navy happen to help you out. Callsign RMMA has foxed us for well over two years at least, appearing every now and again, and in fact being one of the very first callsigns that I logged. It always has very strong signals to the UK initially which meant it was in the vicinity of the Northern or Baltic fleet home bases, the North Sea or Eastern Atlantic. It would fade eventually as the distance from here increased, but with the usual propagation affects that sometimes brought it booming in.

In September 2012, a Russian navy ship had been spotted off Cape Canaveral where there were two scheduled launches for the beginning of October. There was also a planned launch of a Trident II D5 from a Royal Navy submarine later on in October. At that time there was an unidentified callsign, RJQ84, operating in that area so at first we thought this would be an AGI of some sort, though sending FM-13 messages was unusual. Then RMMA and RJQ84 sent messages to each other, saying to use VHF radios to communicate. This meant they were close to one another and so we thought maybe RJQ84 was an escort ship to the AGI, RMMA. At the end of September RJQ84 headed for Jacksonville, I seem to remember because of a hurricane hitting the area, and reports followed that a Rescue tug had arrived in port, this turning out to be Sliva Class “Vikr”. A few days later other reports announced that Vishnya Class AGI “Viktor Leonov” had suddenly arrived in Havana. And RMMA had disappeared from sending messages. Was RMMA Viktor Leonov? We never got any solid proof and so I left it pencilled in on my list.

RMMA has cropped up since then but with no news of Viktor Leonov there was nothing to go on. So why is this relevant now you say? Well, RMMA turned up about a month ago (December 2014 at time of writing the article), very strong then fading, again no FM-13 reports. On the 22nd of January Tom spotted a news report that Viktor Leonov had again docked at Havana on the 20th, the day that RMMA went off station. This coincidence was too much and RMMA is now logged as Viktor Leonov.

Frequencies

This is a hard one really. Those of us that monitor the Russian navy have discovered hundreds of frequencies that they use; a file on UDXF lists 578 currently in use. To get you started though here’s a few of the more active frequencies:
8345 Ship night primary (duplex)
12464 Ship day primary (duplex)
11000 Moscow (duplex) c/s RIW
14556 Moscow (duplex) c/s RIW
11155 Severomorsk (duplex) c/s RIT
8120 Navy HQ St. Petersburg (simplex) c/s RAA
4079 Kaliningrad (duplex) c/s RMP
8348 Pacific Fleet ship primary (duplex)
5411 Vladivostok (duplex) c/s RJS
3395.5 Sevastopol (simplex) c/s RCV
19201 Sevastopol (weather/nav warnings) c/s RCV
4635 White Sea area ships calling Severodvinsk (duplex)
4376.5 White Sea area ships calling Severodvinsk (duplex)

WinRadio Excalibur memory list for the Russian Navy CW network, whilst monitoring one of the Severodvinsk frequencies, RJD99 (РЙД99). Note also the repeated transmission on 4625, the famous Russian enigma net “The Buzzer”

WinRadio Excalibur memory list for the Russian Navy CW network, whilst monitoring one of the Severodvinsk frequencies, RJD99 (РЙД99). Note also the repeated transmission on 4625, the famous Russian enigma net “The Buzzer”

The White Sea frequencies are always interesting ones to monitor. On quite a few occasions we’ve caught a build of ships before an exercise or launches of nuclear/cruise missile tests from submarines. Most here remain unidentified as they haven’t left the White Sea, or certainly haven’t gone far from it.

I would say, for the West coast of America the best bet is to listen in on the Pacific/Vladivostok frequencies, but this doesn’t mean the others are out of range. We have recently followed Akademik Krylov Class Survey/Research Ship “Admiral Vladimirskiy” (RHO62) on a round the world tour where here in the UK we were able to pick it up on the Pacific primary of 8348 kHz, as well as getting it on 8345 kHz. In fact it used 8345 more than anything in the later stages of being in the Pacific where we able to catch it on the west coast of Costa Rica and going through the Panama Canal. RHO62 is due to go out on another voyage at the end of this year, this time to the Antarctic.

One last tip – always record the frequency, unless you’re super good at CW; and even then, always record the frequency. Sometimes I wonder whether the radio operators are trying to beat the world record for the fastest message sent by Morse code.

Well, I hope you may have found this interesting. Monitoring the Russian navy can be challenging and it has the added element of lots of investigation and research to make it work fully, but that is the fun part. Through this new “hobby” I renewed my interest in Russian military hardware, deciding to buy a Jane’s Fighting Ships a few years ago so that I knew exactly what the ships looked like that I was listening to. Because of this I got to know the editor of the yearbook and I now provide photos as well as carrying out research on the Russian navy for inclusion within the book.

There is still a huge amount to cover and my next article on the Russian navy will be on other message types you may hear when listening in. So until then, do svidaniya i spasibo (до свидания и спасибо)

Monitoring NATO “Joint Warrior” Exercises

***This blog now contains some information regarding the current Joint Warrior 151 exercise***

Most of November I was away on holiday to the USA which is why there was a lack of a blog last month. This month I’m going to release one of my articles that was published in the July edition of The Spectrum Monitor. tsmcover

As I’ve previously mentioned the magazine is available in digital format, and can be read on all electronic readers. A yearly subscription is $24, which is a bargain bearing in the mind the monthly content produced, totalling over 1200 pages a year.

This version is slightly different to the one published in the magazine as it contains some extra content.

Monitoring NATO “Joint Warrior” Exercises

Twice a year the UK hosts Exercise Joint Warrior(JW), planned by the Joint Tactical Exercise Planning Staff (JTEPS) based at Headquarters Northwood, about 5 miles north of Heathrow Airport. JTEPS is a joint organisation parented by both HQ Air Command & Navy Command (NC HQ).

The Official Mission of the Exercise is to:
Provide a joint, multi-threat environment in which UK, NATO and Allied units and their staffs may undertake collective training and pre-deployment training in tactical formations in preparation for employment in a Combined Joint Task Force

The number of participants is normally quite large, with up to 30 naval vessels, both surface and sub-surface, taking part. The number of aircraft taking part is substantially larger with sometimes up to 100 being involved. These include Maritime Patrol Aircraft(MPA), Fast Jets, Command and Control (C2), Intelligence Surveillance Target Acquisition and Reconnaissance (ISTAR), Transport, Air to Air Refuellers and Helicopters

As well as Air and Sea assets, there are Land based Air Defence units along with Paratroops, Army and Marines. The number of personnel involved is in the thousands.

JW normally involves forces from major European countries as well as the USA and Canada. Other countries such as New Zealand, Australia and Brazil have taken part in recent years.

This French Navy Aquitaine Class Destroyer "FS Aquitaine" (D650) is seen arriving at Her Majesty's Naval Base Clyde, also known as Faslane. The French are huge users of HF, in particular they use STANAG4258, RTTY and HF-ALE. The STANAG and RTTY is normally encrypted but you can sometimes get callsign information from the messages. They also use USB, especially the Transports, AWACS and Maritime Patrol Aircraft

This French Navy Aquitaine Class Destroyer “FS Aquitaine” (D650) is seen arriving at Her Majesty’s Naval Base Clyde, also known as Faslane. The French are huge users of HF, in particular they use STANAG4258, RTTY and HF-ALE. The STANAG and RTTY is normally encrypted but you can sometimes get callsign information from the messages. They also use USB, especially the Transports, AWACS and Maritime Patrol Aircraft

The exercises can cover the whole of the UK, but most of it takes place in Scotland and its surrounding waters. There are certain areas in other parts of the UK that are used, for example the Spadeadam Electronic Warfare Training Range (West of Newcastle, England) and Fast Jet Areas over the North Sea (for Air to Air combat). But it is the limited population of the North West of Scotland, along with quiet air and sea traffic, plus access to both deep and shallow waters, which allows almost total freedom for the participants. There are also numerous weapons ranges some of which include areas designed specifically for Naval Gun Support (NGS) and Close Air Support (CAS) – Cape Wrath on the North Western tip being the main one.

Joint Warrior 141 (JW141) took place between the 31st of March and the 11th of April, 2014. The week prior to the main start of the exercise there was a general build-up of forces as the scenario heads to conflict between fictional countries, starting with Amphibious Forces congregating at West Freugh and Luce Bay off South West Scotland.

"SSN Missouri", a USN Virginia Class SSN, leaving Faslane in 2013.

“SSN Missouri”, a USN Virginia Class SSN, leaving Faslane in 2013.

Meanwhile, the main naval forces from the different participating countries generally arrive at Naval Base Clyde, more commonly known as Faslane. The base is close to Glasgow, and is the home of to the majority of the UK Submarine Fleet, including Vanguard Class SSBNs and Astute Class SSN hunter-killer submarines. It is also the home of the mine countermeasures fleet. Faslane gets regular visitors from various Naval forces throughout the year, a not too uncommon site being USN Virginia Class SSNs that pass through for supplies and crew rest.

JW141 hosted the following countries sea and air elements:

The Netherlands and Belgium also provided Marine forces, as well as the Netherlands and USA providing Forward Air Controllers (FAC).

The UK of course provided the largest amount of participants with numerous ground, Paratroop and Marine regiments, Air Defence and FACs taking part, along with sea and air elements consisting of:

I’m pretty sure there would have been at least one UK Submarine involved though I do not know the details of this. The Astute Class are still in their infancy and so would have been ideally chosen to take part.

Despite my previous statement that it is quiet in Scotland when it comes to sea and air traffic, it isn’t desolate. There is still a large amount of flights into the major cities of Scotland, it is just it is quieter than in Southern England . There are numerous daily warnings sent out to civil aircrews about possible military activity and this works in the other direction too, with the military crews getting briefings on airways and areas to avoid.

Sea warnings aren’t left out either, in particular for the large fishing industry that exists off the West coast of Scotland. For this, JTEPS produces a document that is published on the Government website that provides information on Submarine, Minewarfare, live firing and denial of GPS training for the exercise. This can be a useful document should you be interested in following what is happening during the exercise as it tends to have a program of events and maps.

***I have updated the page to show the document for the current JW151 exercise and it can be found here. There are also daily SUBFACT and GUNFACTS broadcast as part of the NAVTEX warnings

Radio Communications

What JW does bring with all this action is radio communications. In fact, one of the main aims of the exercise is to establish common procedures between forces that are likely to work together for real in a combat area.

All types of communication methods are used, including the old fashioned “flag” and “flashlight Morse code” between ships. In the majority though, it is of course radio that is used to its fullest. And, it is the full spectrum that is used from VLF all the way up to SATCOM, most of which is easily received by monitors around the UK and further when it’s HF that is being used.

As well as voice comms, data takes a large part, especially RTTY, Link 11, Link 16 and STANAG4285. All of this is normally encrypted but if there is a non NATO country taking part then sometimes data is sent in the clear, especially RTTY.

Because of the large expanse of operating areas, HF is used extensively. Over the last few years I’ve built up a record of frequencies used that have been monitored by myself and others also interested in the JW exercises.

A Lockheed Orion CP-140 of the Royal Canadian Air Force, 140116, lines up to depart Lossiemouth during an intense sandstorm in 2013. Just visible in the background is the parking area for the Maritime Patrol Aircraft (MPAs) that take part in Joint Warrior. The usual mix includes USN P-3 and RCAF CP-140 Orions, but has included French, German, Norwegian and Brazilian Navy MPAs in recent years

A Lockheed Orion CP-140 of the Royal Canadian Air Force, 140116, lines up to depart Lossiemouth during an intense sandstorm in 2013. Just visible in the background is the parking area for the Maritime Patrol Aircraft (MPAs) that take part in Joint Warrior. The usual mix includes USN P-3 and RCAF CP-140 Orions, but has included French, German, Norwegian and Brazilian Navy MPAs in recent years

The Maritime Patrol Aircraft normally operate out of RAF Lossiemouth and arrive a few days before the exercise begins. Once StartEx has been announced there is at least one MPA airborne at any one time until the exercise ends, quite often though there are two airborne. Mission lengths are around 6 hours including transits and they consist of Anti-Surface Warfare (ASuW) and Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW). The aircraft are designated a trigraph callsign such as A8X as allocated to the USN P8A of VP-5 on the 2nd of April, and these are changed daily. One thing of note with the NATO MPA element of the exercise is that the aircraft are not allocated their callsigns by the exercise staff but from NATO itself, as they are on call to deal with any real-world scenario that may take place. Should there be any non-NATO MPAs in the exercise then these are allocated their callsigns as normal by JTEPS.

When the aircraft get airborne they normally call Northwood, callsign MKL, on HF with a departure message. This is followed by an on-station message and then hourly sitreps until off-station and then landing. They would also call for any information or if they themselves have something to pass such as enemy sightings. The primary frequency used on HF is 6697kHz. As well as using HF the MPAs will communicate on UHF with any vessels in their operating area, though this well out of range of my location so I don’t normally hear this.

RTTY (or RATT) is the primary method of passing the information, though this quite often seems to fail. It is quite amusing sometimes listening to an MPA set up a RTTY message by voice with MKL, which then fails repeatedly, sometimes taking 15 to 20 minutes of attempts. They then give up and send by voice a 30 second message – I sometimes wonder why they bother, especially when it’s something as basic as a departure message.

I normally set up my Icom IC-R8500 and Winradio Excalibur right at the beginning of the exercise to monitor the HF frequencies, in particular the MKL primary 6697 kHz. Along with this I ensure my Bearcat UBC800XLT is up to date with all the correct VHF/UHF frequencies, and that my Bearcat UBC3500XLT mirrors it for when I’m mobile

Talking of going mobile, my usual routine is to head to the Faslane area to catch the arriving and departing ships. Normally, the ships will arrive on the Thursday and Friday before the start of the full exercise. Due to the large amount of ships involved they are given arrival slot times, much the same as aircraft do at airports. This is so that the local Harbour masters, Police escorts, Tugs and Pilots are not stretched to the limit with everything arriving at once. The ships use the standard Marine VHF Channels to communicate with the Pilots etc (Channels 12, 14, 16 and 73). This is usually quite interesting to listen to, in particular this year with USN participation – for instance USS Cole was very twitchy about pleasure craft in the area, even asking the Police escort to intercept a suspicious vessel heading straight for them. The calm response of “Errrr, that’s your Tug and Pilot” was quite funny. On the Sunday, the reverse takes place with all the ships leaving, this time slightly more grouped in small flotillas.

Arleigh Burke class Destroyer USS Ross (DDG 71) about to pass RFA Lyme Bay (L3007) of the UK Royal Fleet Auxiliary

Arleigh Burke class Destroyer USS Ross (DDG 71) about to pass RFA Lyme Bay (L3007) of the UK Royal Fleet Auxiliary

Over the weekend, RFA Lyme Bay and RFA Orangeleaf had anchored a few miles short of Faslane at an area near to Cloch Lighthouse (where I based myself). I was able to receive both these ships on UHF frequencies though I was unable to clearly tie-up the callsigns used by the ships. Just before 0700z, numerous coded messages were sent between the callsigns 8DE and 7GO. These continued until 0800z when 8DE calls “Anchors away”. There was the sound of horns across the bay and RFA Lyme Bay moves off, turning a tight 180 degrees to head south. RFA Orangeleaf follows behind. From this I concluded that 8DE was probably Lyme Bay.

When I’m waiting for things to happen, and scanning with the UBC3500XLT, I’m also using the Close-Call facility of the radio for the UHF band to see if I catch anything else. This time it didn’t work, but another monitor in Northern Ireland was a lot luckier and was able to add a few frequencies to the growing list:

There were plenty of calls on these frequencies, but the usual line of sight problem arises with UHF and the ships would quickly disappear out of my range. But it didn’t matter as HF is used extensively because of this very problem for the ships themselves.

Monitoring from the Shack

With the Icom on 6697 kHz and the UBC800XLT scanning the hundreds of VHF/UHF frequencies, I’d use the Excalibur to search through for the ships HF communications. Like the VHF/UHF ones, there are frequencies that are used every year and one’s that aren’t. But once you’ve found the regular ones you can pretty well catch most of the action. Along with a small group of others that also monitor JW we were able to build up a good picture of what was going on.

It became clear quite quickly that 4706 kHz was being used for Ship Air Defence calls. Over the two weeks this task would be carried out by various units, and by all military methods – Land, Sea and Air. The Land element would be carried out by the RAF Air Defence Unit, based at RAF Boulmer (usual callsign HOTSPUR). The Air element would be from a E3 AWACS (though not that often) and the Sea element would be carried out by a ship. By the callsigns used it sounds like the task is split into three during a 24 hour period, with maybe Boulmer doing 2 slots and a ship the other; or whatever the aim of that days scenarios that have been planned by JTEPS.

The calls would look something like this taken from my logs:
(1132z)
J0T this is G1T
New friendly ML500
Position MKQN0105
Hdg 287
New friendly ML500

(1133z)
Update friendly ML500
Pos MKPN5606
Hdg 287
Spd 166kts
Strength1
C height 19
Update friendly ML500

This is decoded as:
ML500 = allocated track ident by radar operator
MKQN0105 = grid reference
Hdg 287 = Heading 287 degrees
Spd 166kts = speed of track
Strength 1 = number of aircraft in formation
C height 19 = Mode-C radar height

These calls are made very quickly, every 30 seconds to a minute, and actually get quite hard to write down. The training carried out from these calls is very important and not only assist the radar operators but also things like the defence systems on board the ships.

Cobham Aviation Falcon 20 G-FRAW taxies for take-off from RAF Lossiemouth during Joint Warrior 12-2 in 2012. The photo clearly shows all the additional pods these aircraft carry for replicating different aircraft, radars and weaponry

Cobham Aviation Falcon 20 G-FRAW taxies for take-off from RAF Lossiemouth during Joint Warrior 12-2 in 2012. The photo clearly shows all the additional pods these aircraft carry for replicating different aircraft, radars and weaponry

The exercise uses the Civil fleet of Falcon 20 aircraft of Cobham Aviation Services to replicate different aircraft. To do this they use towed targets that can be programmed to have the Radar Cross Section of aircraft such as Sukhoi Su-27or Su-35 Flankers to give the radar operators a true feel of what they would possibly see for real. The pods also replicate missiles as fired by the “enemy” aircraft and can be programmed as such, a “favourite” being Exocet as these have been used in anger against Royal Navy ships, sinking a few in the Falklands Conflict in the early 80’s. The Falcon 20’s can fly very low over the sea up to 300KIAS, and believe me they fly low, I flew in one year’s ago. Other equipment carried can give immediate information of simulated hits or misses by the ships Air Defence weapons, much like ACMI pods (Aircraft Combat Manoeuvring Instrumentation) carried by aircraft.

Sometimes the Falcons also fly with Royal Navy Hawk fast jets, operated by 736 Naval Air Squadron. 736NAS used to be known as FRADU (Fleet Requirements and Aircraft Direction Unit) and the task of these Hawks is to simulate low flying missiles against ships. As the Hawks can fly faster than the Falcons this gives a better simulation to the ship’s crew to help them learn how to combat the threat, or at least reduce the possible damage caused should the missile get through. The Hawks can also carry out the same task as the Falcon 20s replicating enemy aircraft.

The Falcon 20s can also carry out other tasks such as Electronic Warfare by jamming the radars and radios and using chaff and flares. They are very capable aircraft and used continually by the UK, not just in exercises such as Joint Warrior.

By far, the best Maritime Air Defence platform currently at sea is the Daring Class Type 45 Destroyer of the Royal Navy. In JW141 it was HMS Dragon of this class that took part. The Daring class destroyers are fitted with a Marconi Type 1046 Air/Surface search radar which functions in the D-band; and a Surveillance/Fire Control E/F-band Type 1045 (Sampson) Multifunction radar made by BAe Systems. These radars combined can give a 400km,/360° coverage, linking in to the Principle Anti-Air Missile System (PAAMS) which provides target cueing, anti-jamming, radar de-clutter and other functions necessary to protect itself and any other ships in the fleet. For protection the primary weapon is a Vertical Launch System (VLS) capable of holding 48 missiles in single missile cells. These hold either Aster15 or Aster30 S/A missiles with ranges of 15nm and 30nm respectively, with Aster30 reported to have a range of up 65nm. The VLS is capable of having a mix mode, where any combination of the two missiles can be held, the usual mix being 32 Aster 30s and 16 Aster15s. Future developments of the Aster30 include an anti-Ballistic Missile version with a range far exceeding that currently available, with reports of it having a range of 540nm, with a further version exceeding 1200nm.

© 2014 Tony Roper.No usage permitted without authors permission

Göteborg Class Corvette Sundsvall (K24) of the Swedish Navy in a Joint Warrior exercise from April 2013. Every exercise has different participants from different countries, which allows for greater training and learning of techniques used by the differing Navies of the World

It would take pages to go through everything you can hear on HF during JW. It’s a 24/7 activity as the exercise runs day and night, 7 days a week including weekends. You can normally hear the Gunnery ranges at Cape Wrath as ships take it in turns to simulate attacking shoreline targets, normally given instructions by FACs. There’s general radio chat with resupplies, tasking of ship helicopters, and as previously mentioned, the setting up of RTTY and STANAG4285. Most of the general calls were on 4915.5 kHz which seemed to be the Primary Ship HF frequency. Plenty of callsigns were heard every day, though in the majority they couldn’t be tied up as intended.

HF frequencies used over the years that have been logged by myself and others:

Air to Air

© 2014 Tony Roper.No usage permitted without authors permission

Royal Air Force Tornado ZA404/013 in full afterburner as it departs RAF Lossiemouth in April 2013 on a Joint Warrior mission. Being this close to the runway is very noisy and very hot. Within 6 months, this Tornado had been transferred to RAF Leeming and scrapped, being used for spare parts for the remaining fleet of Tornados

The Air element of the exercise takes place for most of the two weeks with a multitude of tasks being carried out by the Fighters, Transports, Tankers and electronic warfare aircraft. Again, to go through the full amount would take pages of information but I’m sure you can imagine how busy the airwaves can be with such a large amount of aircraft taking part.

In the majority, the Fighters use Tactical Air Direction (TAD) frequencies (most people incorrectly call them Tactical Air Designator frequencies). These are “real time” frequencies used by the Air Defence Network in the UK and there are hundreds of them. The actual frequency is never said on the air with the TAD number (channel number) passed instead – TAD156 for instance. To confuse things even more, in JW the TADS are given other codenames, normally colours (as are the HF frequencies in fact) and these are said over the air too. Of course, if you have the TAD frequencies this isn’t a problem as you can tie the colour up. As it is, there isn’t a definitive list of frequencies officially available, though some are known.

As you can imagine, the chat on the frequencies is busy as fighters intercept others fighters, or transports and such like. It’s interesting listening and hasn’t changed much from when I was in the RAF. Though, I’ve got to say it isn’t as busy as it used to be, mainly down to target datalinking between aircraft. The datalinking means that less information is passed over the radios either between aircraft in a formation, or from E3 AWACS for instance. Data is also transmitted from the ground from the Air Defence networks or mobile forces.

The Hercules transports were kept busy most of the exercise with plenty of paradrops, both human and freight. And there were plenty of Helicopters around from ships, as well as RAF and Army elements. Most of this is carried out on common inter-squadron frequencies, and those of the main RAF Area Control based at Swanwick in Hampshire (Southern England, and also home to the Civil London Area Control Centre).

This year the exercise ended with an “Apocalypse Now” scenario with a mass Helicopter and Hercules assault on a disused airfield, RAF Kinloss. This is far out of my range being about 240 miles away so I wasn’t able to monitor it, but I did catch the Helicopters travelling back and forth from there to West Freugh where a mobile base had been established, West Freugh being about 40 miles to the south of my QTH.

Overall, the exercise normally brings a good build up in radio communications for UK listeners, especially HF. But unfortunately, HF isn’t that popular within the Military listeners of the UK where the majority listen to VHF/UHF frequencies. The funny thing is, they’re probably missing the vast part of the exercise.

Three Tornados of the RAF carry out final checks lined up on the runway during Joint Warrior 12-2 in October 2012. Tornados operate with two crew, Pilot and Navigator/Weapons Officer, and have been in full service in the RAF since 1982 but are now in their final years. They have served the RAF well over this time, taking part in all combat Operations since their initial introduction into service, including Operation Desert Storm where they flew as low as 50 feet at over 500mph (something they do every day over Scotland). Their crews are probably the best Low-Level combat pilots in the World

Three Tornados of the RAF carry out final checks lined up on the runway during Joint Warrior 12-2 in October 2012. Tornados operate with two crew, Pilot and Navigator/Weapons Officer, and have been in full service in the RAF since 1982 but are now in their final years. They have served the RAF well over this time, taking part in all combat Operations since their initial introduction into service, including Operation Desert Storm where they flew as low as 50 feet at over 500mph (something they do every day over Scotland). Their crews are probably the best Low-Level combat pilots in the World